Anno 1452
Expert Rules for 3-4 players
by Gerhard E. Kodys, PIATNIK 1999

Note from the translator: I have changed the layout of the original rules and rewritten some parts which needed clarification. No rules have been changed (but see the Variant page) and all changes have been approved by the designer, Gerhard Kodys. The only important Expert rule (phase 3 of the Evaluation Round) has been included but, clearly marked, so it can be easily avoided if the Basic game is preferred. Mik


Become the mightiest ruler by accumulating the most:

Principalities, Estates, Cities, Citizens, Prestige and Gold.

The goal of this game is to have as many Estate, City and Citizen markers on the board as possible; to get as many Principality cards as possible; to attain a high Prestige level; and to collect the biggest fortune in Gold.

All these elements are transformed into Victory points. The player with the most Victory points is the mightiest ruler and wins the game.

Each player takes:
the units in his color
plus 15 Gold and 5 cards.

Place in reverse turn order:

2 Estates in 2 adjacent regions Only 1 Estate per region.


  • The preparations are described in detail in the Overview. If you have not played the game before, or do not remember how the game is set up, please read that section first.

  • Each player takes a set of counters in one color: 16 Estate discs, 24 Citizen cubes. They also receive 15 Gold and 5 cards each (discard Event cards).

  • Roll dice for the first player order and do this in reverse order:
    Each player places two Estate markers on the board, all in different regions. A player's two initial regions must share a common border.


 Pre-evaluation Round
Not used in the Basic game.

Expert rules:
Trade & Agreements


    Note:The first Evaluation-space on the Time Table (Interregnum) is not used in the Basic game, which begins with the first Action Round.

  • Expert Game:The Pre-Evaluation Round has only one phase in which the players may make initial deals. (See "Trade & Agreements").

 1) Action Rounds
Shift the Time marker 1 space to the right:

In columns '2x' or '3x':
roll that number of dice to check for a possible new Action Round.

If any die shows '6':
Go immediately to the Evaluation Round.


  • Shift the Time marker 1 space to the right on the Time table.

  • The 1st Action Round of an Epoch is always played. Two further Action Rounds may take place during the same Epoch depending on a dice roll made before each round: Roll 2 dice before the 2nd Action Round (2x) and 3 dice before the 3rd Action Round (3x).
    If any die shows "6" there will be no further Action Rounds this Epoch.

  • An Evaluation Round always follows after the final Action Round in a Epoch and no later than after the 3rd.

  • During each Action round each player may in turn order perform one of the following four actions:
  •  Build 1 Estate
Place 1 Estate marker in any region and pay the cost to the supply.

Cost = 4 Gold plus 1 Gold per Estate already in that region.

Take the Principality card as soon as you have more Estates in that region than any other single owner (including unsold Estates).

The Principality card shows a map of the board with the region highlighted in red.

Below the map is the title you have gained which increases your Prestige level by +1 as long as you have the card in your possession.

Place the card visibly on the table in front of you.

"Majority" means:
more Estate markers than any other single player in the Region, and more markers than there is not in play in that region.




  • The first Estate marker to be placed in a (empty) region costs 4 Gold. The cost increases by 1 for each additional marker in the region (no matter to whom they belong). Only one marker may be placed per action.
    Example: The 4th Estate marker costs 4+1+1+1=7 Gold to place.

  • The number in the Shield states the maximum number of Estate marker that there can be in the region. The maximum limit of markers a player can have on the board is given by the number of markers (16 Estates).

  • Each region on the map has a Principality card to signify ownership. None of these are held by the players at the beginning of the game.

  • A player receives the Principality card as soon as he has acquired a majority of the Estates (even out of turn) by placement, trade or battle. With the card comes 1 Prestige point.

  • The Principality card must be given up as soon as the majority is lost, and the player will also lose 1 Prestige point.

    When do you have a majority of Estates in a region?
    Example: Österreich has a maximum limit of 5 Estates.

    • If you have 2 Estate markers and the other players have 1 each will you have the (relative) majority of markers and will receive the Principality card.
    • But if you had 2 Estate markers and the other 3 possible Estates were unused, you would not have a majority (imagine that all unused Estates belongs to a non-existant 5th player).
    • You have 2 Estate markers and another player has 1 marker. You do not have a majority because there are still 2 unused Estates. If a third player places an Estate marker will you immediately receive the Principality card (and a Prestige point). As you can see you may gain a majority during another player's turn.

    Note: An Estate marker equals 3 Peasants and increases your income by 3 Gold. During battle you will roll 3 dice (every '6' is a hit).
    An Estate may be reduced through battle, in which case a Reduction token is placed on the marker. The number on the token shows the current 'value' of the marker: 1 or 2 Peasants, income or battle dice.

  •  Settle 1-3 Citizens
Place a maximum of 3 Citizens next to any of your Estates.

Cost = 3 Gold per Citizen.

No more than 3 Citizens per Estate or 6 per City.


  • This action allows you to place up to 3 Citizen markers on the board.

  • Each Citizen marker costs 3 Gold to place.

  • Citizens always settle around an Estate marker. Each Estate can accommodate up to 3 Citizens, unless it has a City disc which expands the limit to 6 Citizen markers.

  • Citizens may be placed on different Estates in the same round.
    Note: Each Citizen increases your income and the number of battle dice for that Estate by 1; a hit is made on each die showing a '5' or a '6'.

  •  Attack an Estate

Attack an opponent's Estate.

Your own Estate must be in the same or a bordering region.

The King may attack or defend any Estate with his army by placing the Soldiers directly into that region.

The attacker loses 1 Prestige point when he announces the attack.



Both players may play 1 Reaction card each.



Both conflicting player's rolls:

1 die per Peasant
1 die per Citizen
1 die per Soldier

An Estate marker = 3 Peasants or the number on its Reduction token.



A hit is scored on any die showing:

Citizen:5, 6
Soldier:4, 5, 6

A defender in a City nullifies a hit for any die showing: 1.



Each opponent removes 1 unit (Citizens, Soldiers or reduces his Estate) for each hit inflicted on him.


The battle continues until all conflicting units on one side has been eliminated.



  • One of your Estates may attack one unfriendly Estate in the same or in a neighboring Region.

  • Any Citizens around the two Estates participate in the battle.

  • The King may attack any Region with his mercenary army (Soldiers) without the use of an Estate, or he may include the army in a standard neighboring conflict from one of his Estates. (The King does not enter the game until 1273).

  • Requirements for the attack: You must have at least 1 Estate marker in your supply. (Otherwise you would not be able to take possession of the conquered Estate).

    The Stages of an Attack:
  1. Declaration of War: Point out the two conflicting Estates. As penalty for instigating a war you automatically lose 1 Prestige point. If the King is involved in the battle he may immediately bring any of his Soldiers onto the board:
       • Attacking Soldiers are placed in the attacking Region.
       • Defending Soldiers are placed in the attacked Region.
    Note: Participating Soldiers are always lost after the battle, no matter if they win or not.

    Tip: Both involved players may 1 Reaction card each which may be used to alter the strength of either party.

  2. Battle: Each player throws 1 die per attacking or defending unit:
    Use 3 dice for an unreduced Estate (= 3 Peasants) or the number of dice shown on the Reduction token plus 1 die per Citizen and Soldier.

    Roll separately for each type of unit as they have different chances making a hit. (See table to the left or on the Player Aid).

    The battle is resolved simultaneously on both sides; any losses are only taken after both players have thrown their dice.

    Example: Red is attacking from an Estate with a City and 3 Citizens. The target is a blue City without Citizens:
    • First red throws 3 dice for his Estate; they show 1-5-6 inflicting one hit on blue (the '6'). Then he throws for his 3 Citizens: 2-4-5, inflicting another hit (5).
    • The defender (blue) throws 1-5-6, letting him inflict a hit as well (6). City defence works on a throw of '1' which means he absorbs one of the red hits as well. Each player inflicts a hit on the other. Red also has a City and rolled a '1', but as he was attacking this has no effect.

  3. Losses: Each hit removes a unit from the opposing force. The players decide for themselves where they will take their loss. An Estate equals 3 units and may be reduced by placing a Reduction token on top of it.

    Example: The effects of the previous battle: Red decides to remove one Citizen. Blue has no alternative, he must reduce his Estate to 2. Both players will throw one less die during the next battle round.

    Note: The first time an Estate is hit you place a Reduction token with the 2-side up on top of the Estate marker. The next time you turn over the Reduction token to the 1-side, and after the third hit you simply remove the Estate marker and the Reduction token. Both are returned to the supply and may be reused. Any City disc beneath the Estate marker is also returned to the supply unless the City is conquered. Obviously the Estate would be the last unit to be removed from the battlefield as neither Citizens nor City would be able to exist in the region without the Estate marker!

  4. The battle continues until one of the conflicting Estates has been totally eradicated. Any (victorious) Soldiers remaining on the board are returned to the general supply (not to the King players supply!)
  • The victorious player receives 1 Prestige point.
  • The losing player loses 1 Prestige point.

    If the Attacker wins must he replace the defending Estate marker with one of his own with a Reduction marker showing '1' at the top. Any City disc beneath the Estate marker is kept by the new owner.

    If the defender wins the attacking Estate is lost. The Estate marker and any City disc beneath it are returned to the supply. (The King does not lose an Estate if he attacked using only his Soldiers).

    Note: It may happen that both players eliminate each other at the same time. In this case both players lose their Estate and City. No Prestige points are awarded or lost as there would be no winner or loser.

  •  Play a card
Play one card from your hand and perform that action.

Note that some cards may have dual functions, but only one action may be performed.

  • Instead of doing one of the above three actions the player may play a card. Only one card may be played and each card can only be used to perform one action.

  • Any card in the hand may be used to perform an action except the red Reaction cards. Here follows a description of the different cards:

  Action Cards
  City cards
Play a City card,

pay 6 Gold,

place a City disc underneath existing Estate marker.





  • Any card with a Tower silhouette and a City name just below the Title banner may be used to build a City in the region stated in the Title banner. The card is discarded after use.

  • You must already have an Estate marker in that Region. Each Estate can only hold one City disc. The number of Tower silhouettes above the Shield on the board depicts the maximum number of Cities the region can hold at any one time.

  • You must pay 6 Gold to place a City disc underneath an Estate marker. The money is paid to the supply.

    Note: A City increases the income by 1 and strengthens its defence: Each unit within a City nullifies a hit on a die roll of "1".
    Most cards have another action to which the illustration refers. These cards can be used either as their main action or as City actions - not both!

  Marriage cards

Play a Marriage card,

fulfil all stated requirements,

and utilize as many benefits as possible.

Keep the Marriage card in front of you.

The marriage last until the end of the Epoch.






  • Marriage cards have a picture of a Lady and the region where she lives. Keep the card on the table in front of you until the end of the Epoch.

  • You must fulfil all requirements stated on the card; if not, the card cannot be played. (You do not need to have an Estate in that region - unless it is part of the requirements).

  • You may marry even though you cannot utilize all benefits the card gives (e.g. you might not be able to place an Estate marker or a City disc because of the regional limit).
    Example: "You receive an Estate in Bayern" - If there already is 4 Estate markers in that region will you not be able to place yet another marker.

    If the card grants you a Principality card will you receive this from the current holder - even when you do not have the majority.

  • You cannot marry unless you are able to fulfil all the disadvantages.
    Examples: You must remove a Citizen but you do not have any on the board. You must pay the expenses for the marriage but you do not have enough money.

  • The marriage lasts until the end of the Epoch. A marriage cannot be annulled, which means you cannot remarry during that Epoch.

  • A Principality card that was conveyed to you through marriage (and for which you do not hold the majority) must be given up when the marriage is over (including the Prestige point that comes with the card).

  Title card

Play Title card,

fulfil all requirements,

gain 2 Prestige points.

Keep the card until you no longer fulfil all requirements.


  • Title cards have a picture of a Noble and the Region of his title.

  • You must fulfil all requirements stated on the card; if not, the card cannot be played.

  • Place the Title card on the table in front of you and receive 2 Prestige points.

  • Whenever you cannot fulfil the requirements the Title card must be discarded. (But you keep the Prestige points you gained.)

  Inheritance cards

Play Inheritance card,

place an Estate free of costs.


  • Inheritance cards have a picture of a Treasure chest and names the region of the property. There are no requirements attached, and the card is discarded after use.

  • Place an Estate marker free of cost in the named region (if the limit has not been reached). Take the Principality card if you obtain majority.

  Special Action cards

Play a Special Action card,

perform the "AR:"- action.

  • "Special Actions" are all the cards which names a specific action in the title banner instead of a region. The card is discarded after use.

  • Perform the action stated under the abreviation "AR" (Action Round).
    Note: These cards may also be played during the Evaluation Round ("ER").

 2) Evaluation Round

Move the Time marker to the next Year.

Perform each phase in turn order.


  • Move the Time marker down to the next line and place it in the first row (the Year). A scoring of the events that took place during Action Rounds takes place now, and preparations are made before the next game turn (Epoch).

  • Each of the 6 phases in the Evaluation Round must be performed in order. All players finish a phase in turn order before the next phase.

  1. Cards

Discard any cards,
and replenish hand back to 5.

First drawn Event card must be played, the rest are discarded.

Draw replacement cards for any Event cards.

  • Before drawing new cards, a player may discard any number of cards from his hand. A player with more than 5 cards in his hand must at least discard any cards in excess of 5.

  • Each player replenish his hand back to 5 cards by drawing one card at a time from the Action deck.

  • Any Event cards drawn are immediately discarded and replaced. The very first drawn Event takes place. (See: "Event cards".)


Each player may play
1 Special Action card

During the following phases of the Evaluation Round each player may play 1 Special Action card ONCE. Only Special Actions may be played, and the "ER" part of the card is performed during Evaluation Rounds.
Note: Many of the actions are only useful in certain phases. For example "Sondersteuer" which can only be played prior to the Income phase.

  2. Income

Income is paid to each player:
Estate marker:1-3 Gold
Citizen marker:1 Gold
City disc:1 Gold
Principality card:1 Gold

  • The players receive income from the supply.

  • Reduced Estates produce less income (1 or 2 Gold instead of 3). The Reduction tokens are returned to the supply after the payout.
    Tip: Count all your normal Estates first (markers x 3), add the Reduction tokens to this number plus the number of Cities and Citizens.

    Note: There is a misprint in the "Kosten-Nutzen-Tabelle" of the original Player Aid cards: "Einkommen" / "Besitzkarte" should be: '1'.

  3. Trade & Agreements
Players may freely make deals with each other.

Limit the phase to 5 minutes.





    Note: This phase is not used in the Basic game!

  • The players may freely trade and make agreements with each other. Everything is allowed as long as it does not go against the rules.

  • Important rule: All agreements must be kept!
    Note: By mutual agreement the players may show, trade, buy or give cards away; they may switch or give up Estate markers; conclude non-agression pacts etc. You can also record the agreement on paper.

  • The phase ends when all players have declared that they have concluded their deals.
    Tip: You may want to limit the time used to 5 minutes. One player clocks the time; any negotiations not completed when the time is up fail.

  4. Prestige Points

Gain or lose 1 Prestige point for having the most or least units in the following categories:

   • Estate markers,
   • Citizen markers,
   • City discs,
   • Principality cards

1 Prestige point = 5 Gold




  • 1 Prestige point is awarded to each player who has the most possessions in each of these categories: Estate markers, Citizen markers, City discs and Principality cards. The players with the fewest possessions in each category loses 1 Prestige point.

  • The player markers on the Prestige table are moved up or down as the players gain or loses Prestige.

  • If there is a tie between players in a category they all receive/lose a Prestige point.

  • If every player has an equal amount that category is not awarded (as they would all both receive and lose 1 point anyway).

  • Each Prestige point above "20" is converted to 5 Gold instead; similarly must a player pay 5 Gold for each Prestige point he loses below "0".

  • If a player cannot pay a demanded sum of money to the supply, it will pay out that amount to each of his fellow players instead.
    Note: This rule of insolvency is exclusively used when lost Prestige points cannot be paid; you cannot use the rule to pay for your marriage for instance!
All Marriage cards are discarded.
All existing marriages cease at this point. Discard any played Marriage cards. Principality cards which were part of the marriage portion are returned unless the player has a majority of Estates in that region.

  5. Coronation

The player with the fewest Estates on the board is elected King.



The King's privileges

• +3 Prestige points
• +3 Action cards
• 12 Soldier pawns
• Chosen place in turn order
• May attack anywhere



  • A King is "elected" for the first time in the 1273 Epoch (after the 2nd Interregnum.

  • The player with the fewest Estate markers on the board is automatically crowned King.

  • In the case of a tie the player with the highest Prestige is crowned; if still tied the King is found by diceroll (highest player wins).

  • The new King takes the King card which states his privileges:
    • He immediately receives 3 Prestige points.
    • He immediately takes 3 Action cards from the deck (normal rules apply for any drawn Event cards).
    • He takes the 12 Soldier pawns which he may use in any battle. Each participating Soldier hits on a roll of 4-6.
    • He choses his own position in the turn order.
    • He may attack any region; he do not need to have an Estate.
    • The player keeps all regions he conquers as King, even when he loses his King status.
    Note: The actual Kings were elected by 7 electoral princes; however they do not appear in our game. The years are the dates of the actual coronations.

  6. New Player Turn Order

The new turn order follows the rank of the Prestige table.

The King and the Anti-King may decide their own place in the turn order.





    The player's Turn markers are placed following these guidelines:

  • If the King is in play that player may as the first decide his place in the turn order by placing his marker on the Turn Order display.

  • If the Anti-King is in play he may as the next player decide his position.

  • Then follow the rest of the players. They cannot chose their positions but are placed on the free spaces of the Turn Order display in the order of their Prestige level.
    Example: The King has placed his marker on the 2nd space, and there is no Anti-King in play. The player with the most Prestige points becomes the first player, the next player becomes third and the final player becomes fourth.

    Roll dice in case of a tie; the player with the highest roll comes first.

  End Game

The final Evaluation Round concists of only two phases:

"Income" and "Prestige points".


The player with the most Victory points (Possessions, Money and Prestige) wins the game.





When the Time marker is moved to the final year (1452 in the full game), the Final Evaluation Round is played.

During the final Evaluation Round no cards are drawn, and only phases 2 ("Income") and 4 ("Prestige Points") are played. Then the players are awarded Victory points for their possessions.

1 Victory point is awarded for:

  • each Estate marker
  • every 2 Citizen markers
  • each City disc
  • each Principality card
  • every 10 Gold
  • each Prestige point

The player with the highest total of Victory points is the winner and will be crowned Emperor by the Pope!
Tip: If you need to prematurely break off a long game is it best to play until the next Evaluation Round and then only play the two phases: "Income" and "Prestige points". You can then award Victory points as written above. You should never play less than 6 Epochs though!

  Reaction Cards
Play Reaction card in connection with an attack.

Only one card per player.



  • Reaction cards have the name of the action in red in the title banner.

  • Reaction cards do not count as an "action" when played. They may be played as an extra action during your own turn, or as a reaction against an opponent's action during any turn. The cards are discarded after use.

  • Each player may only play one Reaction card against each Action.
    Note: All cards (except "Kindbett") can only be played during an attack.

 Event Cards     ("Show card immediately!")
One card may be played in each of the 3 Action Rounds and the Evaluation Round.

Only the first drawn card during each sub-round is played; the rest are discarded.



No Coronation phase, or
the King dies.




The player with the most Estates on the board is elected Anti-King.


The Anti-King's privileges:

• +3 Prestige points
• +3 Action cards
• Half the remaining Soldiers
• Chose place in turn order
• May attack everywhere.




"Bitte Karten mischen":
Shuffle the Action cards.


  • Event cards have the picture of a Knight and the sentence "Karte sofort aufdecken!" below the title banner. These cards must not be kept in the hand but are immediately shown.

  • Only the first drawn Event takes place. If a player draws more than one the player to his left must randomly pick one to play.

  • Only the first drawn Event takes place during the Evaluation Round; all other Event cards drawn by any player are immediately discarded.

  • The same rule applies when Event cards are drawn during the Action Rounds: only the first drawn Event in each of the 3 rounds takes place.

  • The "Interregnum" card announces an Epoch without a King.

  • If the card is played prior to the Coronation phase will this phase be skipped and there will be no King during the upcomming Epoch.

  • If the card is played after the Coronation phase the King dies. (A new King is not elected until the next Coronation phase.) The player must loses the Crown card, Soldiers and all privileges; he do not have to give up any cards or Prestige points.

  • The "Gegenkönig" card announces an opposing ruler.

  • The player with most Estate markers on the board is crowned Anti-King. If tied the player with the highest Prestige is elected. If still tied the highest roller of a die becomes the Anti-King.

  • He receives the Anti-King card which states his privileges:
    • He immediately receive 3 Prestige points.
    • He immediately takes 3 Action cards from the deck.
    • He receives half the current available Mercenary Army from the King (a left-over Soldier pawn is discarded).
    • He may chose his space on the Turn Order display after the King player.
    • He may attack any region on the board, he do not need and Estate marker.

  • During Epochs without a King (Interegnums) there cannot be an Anti-King either and the card is discarded. If the King dies (the Event "Interregnum" takes place), the Anti-King dies as well.

  • The "Bitte Karten mischen" card is always played, even if another Event card has already been played this round. The card tells you to reshuffle the Action deck, this card and the discard pile into a new deck.

  The "Ottokar"-Scenario      (for 2 or 3 players)
"Ottokar" is a fictitious passive player who begins the game with all his markers on the board.


Otherwise all normal rules apply.





    The "Ottokar"-scenario is designed for the 2-player game. In a 3-player game you can either play the "Ottokar"-scenario or the standard game.

  • "Ottokar" - the powerful prince - is a fictitious additional player. He begins with all his markers on the board.

  • Chose a color for "Ottokar" and place all the markers as shown in one of two pictures on page 10 of the rules book. Picture "A" and "B" shows two different starting positions.
    Note: Alternatively could you design your own scenarios or change the existing suggestions by placing Cities and Citizens differently.

  • When "Ottokar's" markers has been placed, use the normal rules for playing the game.
    Note: "Ottokar" is a passive player. He receives no Action cards, no income, he cannot trade, receives no Prestige, can never become King and he does not take turns. He has no actions, but his Estates and Citizens may be attacked. A neutral player will then roll dice for him and decide which markers to remove.

  The Expert Rules      (for 2 to 4 players)



Only ONE card may be discarded.




Additional rule for 2 players:

5 cards are placed open;
players may chose to exchange one card for one of their own.








    Note: Phase 3: "Trade & Agreements" are really part of the Expert rules, but have been moved into their proper place as I feel they are an important part of the game. Mik

  1. Before the hand is replenished (1st phase of the Evaluation Round) the players may only discard 1 card instead of the normal free discard.
    Note: A player with more than 5 cards must naturally still discard more than one card, but he must keep at least 4 cards and may draw one new card from the deck.

    Tip: Play the Expert game without this rule as there are too many cards which can only be used in specific turns, and they would take up valuable space in your hand.

  2. The following rule is used by 2 players:

    • During the "Cards"-phase 5 additional Action cards are drawn and placed face up near the game board.

    • During the "Trade & Agreement"-phase players may "trade" with the bank by replacing one public card with one from their hand (1:1).

    • The trade must be done in turn order one card at a time. The start player begins (or if he declines, the other player).
      Note: Reverse the turn order in the first round making the second player the first to trade followed by the start player!

    • A player may not trade twice in a row. The two players must alternate. In other words: If one player stops trading the other player must stop too!

    • At the end of "Trade & Agreement"-phase are the 5 face up cards discarded. In the next round 5 new cards are made public.

Translation: Mik Svellov
Thanks to Rick Heli for the help!
1999 v2.1